What is this medication?
Nitrofurantoin/Macrobid/Macrodantin is generally used for asymptomatic bacteriuria (off-label), acute uncomplicated cystitis, prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated cystitis (on and off label depending on dosage form).
How does this medication work?
Bacterial flavoproteins convert Nitrofurantoin/Macrobid/Macrodantin to reactive intermediates that inactivate or alter ribosomal proteins in bacteria which leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, aerobic energy metabolism, DNA, RNA, and production of cell wall. Little resistance has grown by bacteria which could be explained by the fact that it affects the production of so many different bacterial components. Resistance would require many simultaneous mutations of each target in the bacteria, otherwise one of the remaining mechanisms would result in cell death.
How should I take this medication?
Oral: 50-100 mg one to four times per day depending on formulation and indication it is used for
How to Take: Follow instructions provided by physician/pharmacy label, swallow whole with a whole glass of water, take with food, store at room temperature.
You Need to Avoid: Do not open the twice a day Macrobid formulation, they must be swallowed whole. Do not take any forms on an empty stomach as absorption will be significantly lower which will lower efficacy.
What should I watch for while using this medication?
Before starting Nitrofurantoin/Macrobid/Macrodantin make sure your physician is aware of any allergies, medications you currently take, if you have kidney disease, liver disease, hemolytic anemia, if you are pregnant, or breastfeeding.
What if I miss a dose?
If you miss a dose of medication, try to take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, take only that scheduled dose. Do not take double or extra doses.
How should I store this medication?
Keep out of the reach of children at all times. Store at room temperature, 59 to 86° F (15 to 30° C). Protect from light. Keep the container tightly closed. Properly dispose of any unused medication after the expiration date.
What are the possible side effects of using this medication?
Headache, increased serum phosphate, nausea, flatulence, decreased hemoglobin, eosinophilia, increased liver enzymes. Very rarely nitrofurantoin may cause pulmonary reactions or peripheral neuropathy. Report any breathing symptoms or any signs of numbness or tingling in the extremities.
Note this is not a complete list of side effects.
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