What is this medication?
Antigout Agent, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor
Allopurinol, Aloprim/Zyloprim is indicated for hyperuricemia (Gout), prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis (prevention of calcium or uric acid (off-label) kidney stones), prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. (may be used for conditions not listed)
How does this medication work?
Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Allopurinol/Aloprim/Zyloprim and its metabolite oxypurinol both inhibit this enzyme specifically affecting purine catabolism in a way that reduces the production of uric acid without disrupting the biosynthesis of vital purines. Crystallization of excessive uric acid in the joints, tendons and surrounding tissues is the cause of gout attacks, therefore lowering uric acid levels lowers risk of gout attacks.
What should I watch for while using this medication?
Before starting Allopurinol/Aloprim/Zyloprim make sure your physician is aware of any allergies or medications you currently take, if you have liver disease, kidney disease, are pregnant or breastfeeding
Note that when initiating therapy an increase in frequency of gout attacks may occur, so dosages should generally be started low and increased slowly. In some cases, a bridging therapy may be offered to reduce this risk as the body adjusts to this medication.
How should I take this medication?
Oral: 100-800mg daily divided into one to three doses (normally once daily but may be divided to increase gastrointestinal tolerability)
How to Take: Follow instructions provided by physician/pharmacy label, take consistently at same times each day unless otherwise directed, take with food to reduce adverse gastrointestinal effects.
You Need to Avoid: Avoid stopping and starting this medication without physician involvement and do not miss dosages to avoid increasing risk of acute gout attacks.
What if I miss a dose?
If you miss a dose of medication, try to take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, take only that scheduled dose. Do not take double or extra doses.
How should I store this medication?
Keep out of the reach of children at all times. Store at room temperature, 59 to 86° F (15 to 30° C). Protect from light. Keep the container tightly closed. Properly dispose of any unused medication after the expiration date.
What are the possible side effects of using this medication?
Maculopapular rash, gout attack (usually at initiation of therapy), nausea, renal insufficiency, diarrhea
Note this is not a complete list of side effects, only common ones
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